Clear language and / or simple tools for communication about behaviour in organizations, in use with RDM/RDF


A clear language from T.T. Paterson's Management theory:

A job is what a person contributes towards the achievement of the purpose of the organization. A job is composed of tasks.

Tasks are groups of related processes and operations.

A process is a set of logically related operations.

An operation is a complete and logical cycle of elements.

An element is either a physical movement or a mental activity.

Decision and decision system
All jobs, whatever the particular field or function, require people to make decisions. Each task can be broken down into decisions required.

Decision-making implies a decision process, a sequence of four stages:
1. Stimulation which becomes Information,
2. Assessment of the information to present a Conclusion or alternatives for action,
3. Selection of an alternative which becomes a commitment to action and so results in a Decision proper,
4. Execution, requiring decisions on how to carry out the commitment.

In any enterprise a decision by one person may become the information or the conc1usion for another, so requiring further decision-making. Hence each of the four stages of decision-making can be seen to form a decision system which, in the case of human enterprises, is an open one.

The stages or 'units' of the decision system are related one to another, and thus relations can be defined in terms of necessity (for decision-making in an organization implies necessity), and necessity involves 'right to do' and hence authority.

All job relations can be specified in terms of authority. There are four forms of authority:
1. Structural authority: the right to command,
2. Sapiential authority: the right to be heard by reason of expertness,
3. Moral authority: the enhancement of structural and sapiential authority by reason of proven rightness and goodness of action,
4. Personal authority: the enhancement of structural, sapiential and moral authority by reason of the charisma of the personality.

Different levels (decision areas, "bands") of decision

Band E:
Top managment has tasks requiring policy decisions. Limits are set by owners and shareholders, if not by the laws of the state.
Band D:
Senior managment and staff have tasks that involve programming decisions, i.e. planning the implementation of policy.
Band C:
Middle managers and staff have tasks that require interpretating decisions, i.e. interpretation of the plan and the choice of what is to be done inside that plan;
Band B:
Skilled workers and starting professionals take routine decisions to decide on the processes necessary to do what bas been decided requires doing;
Band A:
Semi-skilled worders and lower staff take automatic decisions to decide on the cycle of operations within a process; i.e tempo and order of actions;
Band 0:
Unskilled workers can take only limited decisions on the elements of operation; i.e. moment of action and quality of performance.

Each higher level of decision includes the decision areas of its lower levels, each level can be split into a sublevel of coördination of same tasks and a sublevel of execution of those tasks.

Definitions of competencies:

General definition :
Quality that is absolutely needed to do the job. Behaviour, skill, activity for which an employee is qualified, able and willing. Note that the factor willing implicates an important subjective component of the judgments.
Threshold Competencies.
These are the essential characteristics (usually knowledge or basic skills, such as the ability to read) that everyone in a job needs to be minimally effective but that do not distinguish superior erom average performers. A threshold competency fOr a salesperson is knowledge of the product or ability to fill out invoices.
Differentiating Competencies.
These factors distinguish superior from average performers. For example, achievement orientation expressed in a person's setting goals higher than those required by the organization, is a competency that differentiates superior from average salespeople.
Formal Competencies.
Diplomas, grades, certificates that distinguish qualified people from unqualified.

Big Five










Need for Stability






































Belbin Role Models

BELBIN Team-Role Type


Allowable Weaknesses


Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problems.

Ignores incidentals. Too pre-occupied to communicate effectively.


Mature, confident, a good chairperson. Clarifies goals, promotes decision-making, delegates well.

Can often be seen as manipulative. Off loads personal work.


Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options. Judges accurately.

Lacks drive and ability to inspire others.


Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Turns ideas into practical actions.

Somewhat inflexible. Slow to respond to new possibilities.


Painstaking, conscientious, anxious. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on time.

Inclined to worry unduly. Reluctant to delegate.


Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities. Develops contacts.

Over - optimistic. Loses interest once initial enthusiasm has passed.


Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure. The drive and courage to overcome obstacles.

Prone to provocation. Offends people's feelings.


Co-operative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic. Listens, builds, averts friction.

Indecisive in crunch situations.


Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply.

Contributes only on a narrow front. Dwells on technicalities.

STAR (situation, task, action, result):
A method for compiling relevant information about job content and job performance by asking for an example of recent important job performance : 'the situation'; what was the formal task of the performer; what was his actual action and what was the result attained, in that order.

Principle of open communication between professionals
Exchange of job information based on respect for each and everyones person and profession, accepting indivual responsibility and professional autonomy

Principle of dynamics and adaptability in organisations
RDM/RDF uses easy updatable job descriptions. They are simply the products of the most recent agreements on job content, job performance, continuing education and professional behaviour and can be adapted or radically changed when necessary.

Periodical results and performance assessment.
After a relative short period, i.e. 6 to 8 months, but no longer than one year:
Check up, measure, where we are, relative to our targets,
Visualize, adapt to the situation as it is in reality,
Analyse and discuss what went well and what went wrong,
Set up new targets, new attainable goals and a new realistic time path,
Make new arrangements and if necessary define new performance indicators and new realisations for the right kind of behaviour.
Fix date, plan and agree on details for the next check up.

Mind maps
Mind maps are simple computerized graphic tools to outline your thoughts. They were developed in the late 60s by Tony Buzan as a way of helping students make notes that used only key words and images. They are quick to make, and because of their visual quality easy to remember and review. The non-linear nature of mind maps makes it easy to link and cross-reference different elements of the map.

360 degree feedback
360 degree feedback is a method and a tool that provides each employee the opportunity to receive performance feedback from his or her supervisor and four to eight peers, reporting staff members, co-workers and customers. RDM/RDF 360 degree feedback tools are make-it-yourself tools that are as easy to construct as to handle. They are also responded to by each individual in a self assessment. 360 degree feedback allows each individual to understand how his effectiveness as an employee, co-worker, or staff member is viewed by others. The most effective processes provide feedback that is based on behaviors that other employees can see. The feedback provides insight about the skills and behaviors desired in the organization to accomplish the mission, vision, and goals and live the values. The feedback is firmly planted in behaviors needed to exceed customer expectations.

Model for organisation analysis with Result Directed management (mindmap)

Simple tools for analyzing jobs, departments, organisations

  • Checklist for job analysis with Result Directed Management
  • Checklist for organization analysis with Result Directed Management

    The Li Po websites
    The websites Li Po ; Li Po web and Li Po castel are meant to be free accessable tools and sources of information for those using the method or simply interested or experimenting. The websites contain free downloadable examples of job descriptions, tests, tools and other professional information, mostly in Dutch.

    A textbook (in Dutch) of the RDF/RDM method and its tools.
    "Competent Communiceren" (Van Osch & Van de Wiel, 2001, Koninklijke Van Gorcum, Assen. ISBN 90-232-3678-5)
    Book contains principles, theory, examples of situations and job descriptions, problems to solve, tools, explanations, solutions, models for building simple tools. For professionals, teachers, trainers and students.
    Supported with FAQ and free advise via the Li Po websites.

    Last updated : january 27 2008